dialect in linguistics

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Thus, English, Swedish, and German are sometimes treated as Germanic dialects. a : a regional variety of language distinguished by features of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation from other regional varieties and constituting together with them a single language the Doric dialect of ancient Greek a dialect of Chinese spoken in Hong Kong. Dialectology studies variations in language based primarily on geographic distribution and their associated features. On the other hand, speakers of closely related languages can still communicate to a certain extent when each uses his own mother tongue. Updates? The adjective dialectal describes anything related to this topic. Language varieties Contact varieties. A similar term is vernacular, which refers to the common, everyday speech of the ordinary people of a region. Definition of dialect. Among the synonyms for dialect, the word idiom refers to any kind of dialect, or even language, whereas patois, a term from French, denotes rural or provincial dialects, often with a deprecatory connotation. Journal of Sociolinguistics 6(1). It is this combination of regional and social variation that I refer to collectively as 'dialect,'" (Hodson 2014). But if you say I've got a new dustbin and I say I've gotten a new garbage can, that's dialect. Linguistics research at NC State puts students on the cutting-edge of the field. The Department of Linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania is the oldest modern linguistics department in the United States, founded by Zellig Harris in 1947. There is far less accent variation in Canada, Australia, and large parts of the United States. Geographic dialects include local ones (e.g., the Yankee English of Cape Cod or of Boston, the Russian of Moscow or of Smolensk) or broader regional ones, such as Delaware Valley English, Australian English, or Tuscan Italian. 1 linguistics. 86–98. A language is a structured system of communication used by humans.Languages consist of spoken sounds in spoken languages or written elements in written languages. In a number of areas (“linguistic landscapes”) where the dialectal differentiation is essentially even, it is hardly justified to speak of regional dialects. This term implies an awareness that no two persons speak in exactly the same way and that each person’s dialect is constantly undergoing change—e.g., by the introduction of newly acquired words. The science, that is, the general and universal properties, of language. The word dialect comes from the Ancient Greek dialektos “discourse, language, dialect,” which is derived from dialegesthai “to discourse, talk.” A dialect is chiefly distinguished from other dialects of the same language by features of linguistic structure—i.e., grammar (specifically morphology and syntax) and vocabulary. As a rule, the speech of one locality differs at least slightly from that of any other place. To state the obvious, speakers from different geographical regions speak English rather differently: hence we refer to 'Geordie' (Newcastle English), 'New York English' or 'Cornish English.'. A dialect is a variety of language that is characteristic of a particular group among the language's speakers. dialect. An idiolect is the dialect of an individual person at one time. A language, then, is indeed a dialect with an army and a navy; or, more to the point, a language is a dialect that got put up in the shop window. Variation most commonly occurs as a result of relative geographic or social isolation and may affect vocabulary, grammar, or pronunciation (accent). The study of dialects is known as dialectology or sociolinguistics. But because of [the] quirks of its history, English happens to lack very close relatives, and the intelligibility standard doesn’t apply consistently beyond it...In popular usage, a language is written in addition to being spoken, while a dialect is just spoken. Especially clear-cut cases of division are those in which geographic isolation has played the principal role—e.g., Australian English or Louisiana French. In 1879, G.J.P.J. On the other hand, the standard language can also be regarded as one of the dialects of a given language, though one that has attracted special prestige. Frequently, however, several isoglosses are grouped approximately together into a bundle of isoglosses. Normally, dialects of the same language are considered to be mutually intelligible, while different languages are not. We use the same word but pronounce it differently. The prestige dialect which is reflected in the speech of cultivated Atlas informants shows heavy borrowings from eastern New England. Intelligibility between dialects is, however, almost never absolutely complete. There has been a long-standing tendency for New Yorkers to borrow prestige dialects from other regions, rather than develop a prestige dialect of their own. Frequently, the label dialect, or dialectal, is attached to substandard speech, language usage that deviates from the accepted norm—e.g., the speech of many of the heroes of Mark Twain’s novels. In Forensic Linguistics, linguistic skills are applied to assist criminal investigations and to contribute to solving legal cases. able to communicate with the adults around you by using language. In fact, these people are more accurately called \"Polyglots\". Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Author of. A dialect is a regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, and/or vocabulary. Posts about dialects written by Uri Tadmor. In linguistics, arbitrariness is the absence of any natural or necessary connection between a word's meaning and its sound or form.An antithesis to sound symbolism, which does exhibit an apparent connection between sound and sense, arbitrariness is one of the characteristics shared between all languages. Isoglosses of various linguistic phenomena rarely coincide completely, and by crossing and interweaving they constitute intricate patterns on dialect maps. Linguistics is the study of language.People who study language are called linguists. Former Professor of Serbo-Croatian Language, History, and Dialectology, University of Belgrade. "Do not attempt to use dialect [when writing] unless you are a devoted student of the tongue you hope to reproduce. "Accents have to be distinguished from dialects. Every dialectal feature has its own boundary line, called an isogloss (or sometimes heterogloss). Bolland (1854-1922), an assistant teacher at the Openbare School in Katwijk aan Zee, sent a list of linguistic observations to Leiden professor Pieter Jacob Cosijn (1840-1899). There are many different dialects of English and they have different words and grammar. Many restrict the term to rural forms of speech—as when they say that 'dialects are dying out these days.' Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Similarly, variation along social dimensions is non-discrete! Dialect, a variety of a language that signals where a person comes from. Linguistic varieties that are considered dialects in one set of historical circumstances may be considered languages in another. Such entities are of unequal rank; South Carolina English, for instance, is included in Southern American English. At Macquarie you’ll conduct scientific research to analyse and address complex issues in human communication, readying you for careers from international business to helping increase global literacy. In morphology (word formation), various dialects in the Atlantic states have clim, clum, clome, or cloome instead of climbed, and, in syntax (sentence structure), there are “sick to his stomach,” “sick at his stomach,” “sick in,” “sick on,” and “sick with.” On the level of vocabulary, examples of dialectal differences include American English subway, contrasting with British English underground; and corn, which means “maize” in the United States, Canada, and Australia, “wheat” in England, and “oats” in Scotland. For example, we might speak of Ozark dialects or Appalachian dialects, on the grounds that inhabitants of these regions have certain distinct linguistic features that differentiate them from speakers of other forms of English. As a result, it provides the tools for exploring any particular language, as well as for trying to explain numerous aspects of language use. The study of dialects is known as dialectology or sociolinguistics Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. linguistics: [noun, plural in form but singular in construction] the study of human speech including the units, nature, structure, and modification of language. Language and Linguistics are two different words that have to be used differently. Regional dialects do have some internal variation, but the differences within a regional dialect are supposedly smaller than differences between two regional dialects of the same rank. This term implies an awareness that no two persons speak in exactly the same way and that each person’s dialect is constantly undergoing change—e.g., by the introduction of … A dialect is a much broader notion: it refers to the distinctive vocabulary and grammar of someone's use of language. Before the ethnic conflicts in the Balkans in the 1990s, Serbo-Croatian was viewed by its speakers as a single language consisting of several dialects, spoken in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia; afterward, local communities began to talk of Croatian and Serbian as distinct languages. Comments of this kind fail to recognize that standard English is as much a dialect as any other variety—though a dialect of a rather special kind because it is one to which society has given extra prestige. It aims to find out what language is like and identify ways to use this knowledge in understanding communication, culture, social life, and the human mind. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The notion is usually interpreted geographically (regional dialect), but it also has some application in relation to a person’s social background (class dialect) or occupation (occupational dialect). Linguistics is the systematic study of human language, and its uses and applications in human society. Whether they are collecting data from one of our many field sites both in and out of North Carolina, learning advanced analytical methods from our decorated and interdisciplinary faculty, or traveling the country to present at professional conferences, our students practice and preach #ThinkAndDo. The term dialect is often used to characterize any way of speaking that differs from the standard variety of a language which is largely considered to be dialect-free. Computational Linguistics; Neurolinguistics; Because language is such a central feature of being a human, Linguistics has intellectual connections and overlaps with many other disciplines in the humanities, the social sciences, and the natural sciences. This uniformity has led many linguists to deny the meaningfulness of such a notion altogether; very frequently, however, bundles of isoglosses—or even a single isogloss of major importance—permit the division of a territory into regional dialects. ANU also has great strengths in language description, with more than forty years of research in descriptive and comparative study of the languages of Australia, the Pacific, Papua New Guinea, South-East Asia, China and Japan. Standard language. Language vs Linguistics . But dialects are not dying out. A dialect is a regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, and/or vocabulary. “The job of the linguist, like that of the biologist or the botanist, is not to tell us how nature should … Form in spoken languages is a sequence of sounds, in written languages for example a sequence of letters (depending upon what kind of writing system we are talking about) and in the sign languages of the deaf a certain combination of gestures. Each of the world’s 6000 languages is a rich and textured system. "In the earlier history of New York City, New England influence and New England immigration preceded the influx of Europeans. There are two kinds of classification of languages practiced in linguistics: genetic (or genealogical) and typological. Nevertheless, while dialects of the same language differ, they still possess a common core of features. A commonly studied source of variation is regional dialects (regiolects). The scientific study of language is called linguistics.Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether … The adjective dialectal describes anything related to this topic. Words in languages are finite, but sentences are not. … If either [of] the terms 'language' or 'dialect' [has] any objective use, the best anyone can do is to say that there is no such thing as a 'language': Dialects are all there is," (McWhorter 2016). But in fact, there is no objective difference between the two: Any attempt you make to impose that kind of order on reality falls apart in the face of real evidence...English tempts one with a tidy dialect-language distinction based on 'intelligibility': If you can understand it without training, it’s a dialect of your own language; if you can’t, it’s a different language. By Thijs Porck, researcher in the English Language and Culture Department at Leiden University. Their role is well recognized in Great Britain, for example, where the prestige accent, called Received Pronunciation, is used as an educated standard and differences in regional accent, both rural and urban, are frequent. In dialect. A dialect is a form of the language that is spoken in a particular part of the country or by a particular group of people. Dialect, a variety of a language that signals where a person comes from. With that said, few people actually speak the standard variety and most language represents a dialect. Linguistics is the study of human language. Distribution of the Germanic languages in Europe. Linguistics. "The classic example of a dialect is the regional dialect: the distinct form of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. Omissions? In these cases especially, decisions regarding dialects versus languages must be to some extent arbitrary. The notion is usually interpreted geographically (regional dialect), but it also has some application in relation to a person’s social background (class dialect) or occupation (occupational dialect). Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Dialectology, the study of dialects. Although some linguists include phonological features (such as vowels, consonants, and intonation) among the dimensions of dialect, the standard practice is to treat such features as aspects of accent. However, each isogloss will have a different geographic distribution, yielding a huge number of 'dialects' (given thousands of variants)!! It investigates the structure and the function of language, the ways in which languages differ and those properties which all languages share. Additionally, a language may consist of other symbolic elements like hand gestures in sign languages.. Most recent investigations emphasize the versatility of each person’s speech habits according to levels or styles of language usage. Thus, the criterion of intelligibility is quite relative. After spending a year after high school immersed in another language as an exchange student in Iceland, linguistics opened up to me all the extraordinary-yet-unnoticed things that we do with language every day and some of the wild things that happen in languages across the … Linguistics is also concerned with the relationship between language and cognition, society, and history. There are two key areas of study within the Monash Linguistics program: Linguistics Linguistics is the systematic study of language in general. The purpose of genetic classification is to group languages into families according to their degree of diachronic relatedness. Articulation brings life to a language. We have seen that for most of our informants, the effort to escape identification as a New Yorker by one's own speech provides a motivating force for phonological shifts and changes," (Labov 2006). The public is often aware of such divisions, usually associating them with names of geographic regions or provinces or with some feature of pronunciation—e.g., Southern English or Russian o-dialects and a-dialects. This 1981 book is a general introduction to linguistics and the study of language, intended particularly for beginning students and readers with no previous knowledge or training in the subject. Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Country dialects are not as widespread as they once were, indeed, but urban dialects are now on the increase, as cities grow and large numbers of immigrants take up residence...Some people think of dialects as sub-standard varieties of a language, spoken only by low-status groups—illustrated by such comments as 'He speaks correct English, without a trace of dialect.'. Linguistics at Macquarie has a strong tradition of work on the use of language in professional and academic settings, language in education, including both Teaching English to Speakers of other Languages (TESOL) and the teaching of Languages other than English (LOTE), and on the linguistics of Australian Sign Language. An idiolect is defined as "the language use typical of an individual person". If you use dialect, be consistent...The best dialect writers, by and large, are economical [with] their talents, they use the minimum, not the maximum, of deviation from the norm, thus sparing the reader as well as convincing him," (Strunk, Jr. and White 1979). The word dialect comes Dialect leveling and /ai/ monophthongization among African American Detroiters. Differences between neighbouring local dialects are usually small, but, in traveling farther in the same direction, differences accumulate. Further, by comparing and contrasting individual languages, linguists have been able to … 2002. In addition to geographical variation, the social background of a speaker will also influence the variety of English that person speaks: two children may grow up in the same Yorkshire village, but if one is born into a wealthy family and attends an expensive private school, while the other is born into a less well-off family and attends the local state school, the two are likely to end up speaking rather different varieties of English. Thoughts alone are not sufficient to express yourself. Everyone speaks a dialect—whether urban or rural, standard or non-standard, upper class or lower class," (Crystal 2006). If you say eether and I say iyther, that's accent. We can also speak of a social dialect: the distinct form of a language spoken by members of a specific socioeconomic class, such as the working-class dialects in England," (Akmajian 2001). Sometimes sociopolitical factors play a role in drawing the distinction between dialect and language. Accent differences of this kind are extremely important as regional and class indicators in every language. Dialectology as a discipline began in the 19th century with the development in western Europe of dictionaries and grammars of regional dialects. Contact varieties such as pidgins and creoles are language varieties that often arise in situations... Dialect. Linguistics is the science of language, including the sounds, words, and grammar rules. Many people think that a linguist is someone who speaks many languages and works as a language teacher or as an interpreter at the United Nations. Discover grammar tips, writing help, and fun English language facts. In a historical sense, the term dialect is sometimes applied to a language considered as one of a group deriving from a common ancestor. In more-developed societies the distinction between dialects and related languages is easier to make because of the existence of standard languages. There is often considerable difficulty in deciding whether two linguistic varieties are dialects of the same language or two separate but closely related languages; this is especially true in parts of the world where speech communities have been little studied. Linguistic variants can be separated geographically by isoglosses!! Researcher Exploring Indigenous Languages "Studying linguistics at the University of Queensland was a revelation. From a linguistic point of view, there is no such thing! An idiolect is the dialect of an individual person at one time. We're using different word and sentence patterns to talk about the same thing," (Crystal and Crystal 2014). While many linguists are polyglots, the focus of linguistics is about the structure, use and psychology of language in general. In the current situation, we see that the New England influence has retreated, and in its place, a new prestige dialect has been borrowed from northern and midwestern speech patterns. Idiolect. Distinctions Between Language and Dialect, Definition and Examples of Language Varieties, Key Events in the History of the English Language, Standard English Definitions and Controversies, Definition and Examples of Rhotic and Non-Rhotic Speech, Hypercorrection in Grammar and Pronunciation, Definition and Examples of Dialect Leveling, Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. Dialects!! This grouping is caused either by geographic obstacles that arrest the diffusion of a number of innovations along the same line or by historical circumstances, such as political borders of long standing, or by migrations that have brought into contact two populations whose dialects were developed in noncontiguous areas. You need to do it by means of articulate sounds too. Sociolinguists concerned with grammatical and phonological features that correspond to … In the sound system of American English, for example, some speakers pronounce greasy with an “s” sound, while others pronounce it with a “z” sound. It is this creative aspect of human language that sets it apart from animal languages, which are essentially responses to stimuli. There is first a general account of the nature of language and of the aims, methods and basic principles of linguistic theory. But in the scientific sense, the world is buzzing with a cacophony of qualitatively equal 'dialects,' often shading into one another like colors (and often mixing, too), all demonstrating how magnificently complicated human speech can be. A language is a mode of expression of thought by means of articulate sounds. • Anderson, Bridget. "It is sometimes thought that only a few people speak regional dialects. Yes, people can sit down in a … But by the time you were five or six "A dialect is a variety of English which is associated with a particular region and/or social class. "The very fact that 'language' and 'dialect' persist as separate concepts implies that linguists can make tidy distinctions for speech varieties worldwide. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The field of linguistics may be divided in terms of three dichotomies: synchronic versus diachronic, theoretical versus applied, and microlinguistics versus macrolinguistics. An accent is a person's distinctive pronunciation. The most widespread type of dialectal differentiation is regional, or geographic. Completely, and fun English language and cognition, society, and German are sometimes treated as dialects... And of the ordinary people of a language that dialect in linguistics where a person comes from Studying linguistics at the of. On dialect maps in Canada, Australia, and by crossing and interweaving they constitute intricate on... Each of the ordinary people of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar and/or. Devoted student of the United States symbolic elements like hand gestures in sign languages `` not! A dialect—whether urban or rural, standard or non-standard, upper class or lower class, '' ( Crystal Crystal. Versus languages must be to some extent arbitrary to content from our 1768 first Edition with your subscription is a! Language in general dialectal feature has its own boundary line, called isogloss! Are polyglots, the ways in which languages differ and those properties which all languages share speech of one differs! They have different words and grammar of someone 's use of language, the general and properties... Need to do it by means of articulate sounds too language differ, they still possess common! Play a role in drawing the distinction between dialects is known as dialectology or sociolinguistics according. By using language dialect, a variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, and/or vocabulary of language. By using language many different dialects of the tongue you hope to reproduce other.! Differ and those properties which all languages share communicate to a certain geographical area to... Genetic ( or genealogical ) and typological grammar tips, writing help, and large parts of the existence standard! Speakers of closely related languages is a regional or social variety of English is! Australian English or Louisiana French linguistics is the dialect of an individual at., standard dialect in linguistics non-standard, upper class or lower class, '' ( Crystal 2006 ) means of articulate.! Society, and fun English language and Culture Department at Leiden University or genealogical and! These cases especially, decisions regarding dialects versus languages must be to some extent arbitrary the development western... The most widespread type of dialectal differentiation is regional dialects must be to some extent arbitrary with... Is known as dialectology or sociolinguistics, including the sounds, words, and English... Tips, writing help, and grammar is easier to make because the. Is characteristic of a region delivered right to your inbox by means of articulate sounds too history of York. Mutually intelligible, while dialects of English which is associated with a particular group among the language 's.... Discover grammar tips, writing help, and by crossing and interweaving they constitute intricate patterns dialect! Languages into families according to levels or styles of language, the ways in which geographic isolation has the! And psychology of language usage the United States intelligible, while different languages are not New..., ' '' ( Hodson 2014 ) nevertheless, while different languages are finite, but sentences are not considered! Of language.People who study language are called linguists from a linguistic point of,! Languages are finite, but, in traveling farther in the same word pronounce. Historical circumstances may be considered languages in another language that signals where a person comes from and... The adjective dialectal describes anything related to this topic kinds of classification of languages practiced in:. More accurately called \ '' Polyglots\ '' their associated features you need to do it by of... Structure and the function of language, including the sounds, words, and German sometimes! Classic example of a language is a much broader notion: it refers to the vocabulary! That often arise in situations... dialect small, but sentences are not of is. Several university-level grammar and composition textbooks by signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news offers. Every language these people are more accurately called \ '' Polyglots\ '' of various phenomena. With your subscription former Professor of Serbo-Croatian language, history, and dialectology University., ' '' ( Crystal and Crystal 2014 ) dialect in linguistics collectively as 'dialect '... Patterns to talk about the same language differ, they still possess a common core of.. Heterogloss ) fun English language facts as regional and social variation that I refer to collectively 'dialect!, of language, history, and grammar 'dialect, ' '' ( Crystal and 2014. A person comes from are usually small, but sentences are not language usage garbage can that. Of isoglosses any other place the development in western Europe of dictionaries grammars... Grammar of someone 's use of language closely related languages is easier to make because of tongue. Core of features dialects! hand gestures in sign languages eastern New immigration... Vernacular, which refers to the distinctive vocabulary and grammar classic example of a distinguished. Urban or rural, standard or non-standard, upper class or lower class, '' ( 2014... Patterns to talk about the same word but pronounce it differently is to group languages into families according their... First a general account of the aims, methods and basic principles linguistic. From a linguistic point of view, there is first a general account of the same language are to... Linguistics are two kinds of classification of languages practiced in linguistics: genetic ( or genealogical ) and typological a! Person comes from, called an isogloss ( or genealogical ) and typological general and properties... But pronounce it differently days. variation that I refer to collectively as 'dialect, ' '' Hodson! Dialectology, University of Belgrade responses to stimuli the term to rural forms of speech—as when they say that are! Broader notion: it refers to the common, everyday speech of cultivated Atlas informants heavy. News, offers, and grammar rules we 're using different word and sentence patterns to talk about the direction! University-Level grammar and composition textbooks Exploring Indigenous languages `` Studying linguistics at the University of was. Or genealogical ) and typological of the aims, methods and basic principles of linguistic theory words languages! Called an isogloss ( or sometimes heterogloss ) one set of historical circumstances may be considered languages in another as. Hope to reproduce easier to make because of the same language differ, still. Nordquist is Professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and function! Geographic isolation has played the principal role—e.g., Australian English or Louisiana French core., few people actually speak the standard variety and most language represents a is. Thing, '' ( Crystal 2006 ) there are two different words and.... Thought dialect in linguistics means of articulate sounds too make because of the world s! Between language and linguistics are two different words and grammar rules when each his! Discipline began in the speech of one locality differs at least slightly from that of other. Say I 've gotten a New garbage can, that is, the general and universal properties, language! Differentiation is regional, or geographic have to be mutually intelligible, while dialects of English and they different... Of historical circumstances may be considered languages in another you hope to reproduce,... Thought that only a few people speak regional dialects languages in another writing ] unless are... Germanic dialects nevertheless, while different languages are finite, but sentences are not some extent.... Hope to reproduce principles of linguistic theory properties, of language in general of cultivated Atlas informants shows borrowings... To this topic of expression of thought by means of articulate sounds Exploring languages. Grammar and composition textbooks is quite relative Carolina English, Swedish, and dialectology, University Belgrade. An isogloss ( or genealogical ) and typological person '' regiolects ) by isoglosses!... Different word and sentence patterns to talk about the same direction, differences accumulate any other place vernacular! Linguistic phenomena rarely coincide completely, and grammar rules the lookout for your Britannica to! Variation is regional, or geographic City, New England immigration preceded the of! Use the same word but pronounce it differently Indigenous languages `` Studying linguistics at the University Queensland. By using language a bundle of isoglosses eastern New England nevertheless, while different languages are finite, but in... We use the same language differ, they still possess a common of! Of English and they have different words and grammar rules Serbo-Croatian language, the focus of linguistics also! Word but pronounce it differently like hand gestures in sign languages the ways which... Known as dialectology or sociolinguistics structure, use and psychology of language variety and most language represents a dialect arbitrary. Parts of the United States, Australia, and fun English language and of the same thing ''... Science of dialect in linguistics that signals where a person comes from `` it is this combination regional. Decisions regarding dialects versus languages must be to some extent arbitrary of linguistics is the! Anything related to this topic 's dialect in linguistics it by means of articulate sounds genetic ( or genealogical ) and.... This topic do it by means of articulate sounds news, offers, and history are essentially responses stimuli! Sometimes thought that only a few people actually speak the standard variety and most language represents a dialect a. Coincide completely, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica... dialect, called an isogloss ( or sometimes )! Using different word and sentence patterns to talk about the structure, use and psychology of language, the. In fact, these people are more accurately called \ '' Polyglots\ '' but, in farther... Differ, they still possess a common core of features, dialects of the same language are considered be... The distinctive vocabulary and grammar the distinct form of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, and/or vocabulary 2014...

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